Their are basically 5 steps of design in Russian system

1) Development of Design scheme.

2) Determination of Loads.

3) Calculation of Internal forces in Elements.

4) Selection of Cross Section.

5) Check for Designed Cross Section.

__Loads & Loads Combination__

__ __**INDIAN CODES** :-

•) In India the Calculation of Dead load, Live Load & Wind load are done with reference of

**IS 875**.

•) The Specialized Information of Industrial Buildings is provided by some codes like

**IS 807.**

•) For Design of Earthquake Loads in India the reference of

**IS 1893**is taken into consideration.

•) For Design of Towers & Other Forms of Structure the codes taken into consideration are

**IS 802, IS 9178, IS 6533.**

**:-**

*RUSSIAN CODES*The Basic data on all types of loads except the earthquake loads are given in

**SP20.13300.2011**loads and effects code.

For Design of Earthquake loads or Sesmic Loads

**SP14.13330.2011**is taken into consideration.

**Loads & Effects **

In Russian Standards all the loads are divided in two groups depending upon its duration and action.

1) Dead Load (Permanent): It includes the weight of Structures, Weight of Soil & pressure for underground soils, forces from prestress.

2) Live Load (Temporary): These loads are further divided into two sub category

2.a) Long Time loads like Store goods, machines in industrial Buildings, Pressure of Fluids Etc.

2.b) Short Time loads like Weight of People, Weight of Snow & Wind loads.

There is one special category designed for Earthquake loads and loads caused due to sudden breaches of technological process.

The load has two values-

a) Unfactored Load &

b) Design Load.

Unfactored Load ie Specified Characteristic Load are the loads that acts on structure during its operation.

Design Loads are the maximum possible loads that can act on structure.

Formula- P = P^n × (gamma)f

Where P. = Design Load

P^n. = Unfactored Load

(gamma)f = Partial Safety Factor for loads

given in SP 20.13330.2011

(gamma)f = 1.05 For weight of steel.

(gamma)f = 1.04 For weight of Snow.

The reability coefficient for load shows how many times the design load may exceed Unfactored load.

which software can be used to design steel structure as per Russian standards????

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