Wednesday, 1 August 2018

Market Analysis

Market is defined as a group of firms and individuals that are in touch with each other to buy or sell some goods and services. It is also considered as a platform where sellers and buyers meet for settling a transaction. Depending upon a commodity and supporting factors, a market can be local, national and international.
To enter in market we should have a brief analysis of some points-
1) Brief study of the type of market you are going to enter.
2) Brief analysis of SWOT ie Strength Weakness Opportunities Threat.
3) Data collection of customers and potential customers.
4) The demand and supply rate of market.
5) data collection of customers to be target for your product sales.

In economic analysis, markets are generally classified into four categories
1) Perfect competition
2) Monopoly
3) Oligopoly
4) Monopolistic.

Perfect competition- It is open market where we have large number of buyers and sellers. Due to large participation of buyers and sellers prevents a single seller or buyer from influencing the price. This kind of market involves free entry and exit and also grants complete information about the market price, demand, supply etc. Therefore having an ample information prevents a single seller and buyer from influencing the price.

Monopoly- In this market producers sells a homogeneous and unique product. Due to this the producer has almost near total control on the supply. This reflects in changes of price of product as per demands.
Some examples of Monopoly are public utility services which are usually controlled by the government.  But since government is considered to work in the welfare of people therefore it is expected that the government would not exploit the consumers. The entry to this market is highly restricted or almost nil. If in extreme cases entry is allowed then the government acts as a regulator.

Oligopoly - In this market there are few sellers selling standardized products or services. The best examples of this market are airline companies, cement manufacturers, steel manufacturers, computer manufacturers etc. This type of market allows free entry but requires huge initial investment, firm organisations, advance technologies. Due to which entry to this market is very difficult. The firms have a huge influence on the prices of products due to differential products.
In an oligopoly market, price remains rigid. This is due to the fear about the reaction of their rivals. An increase in price would not be responded to buy any decrease will be followed by similar or at times a larger reduction in price. Such fears make a firm stick to a particular price without further changes in order to avoid a possible price war.

Monopolistic- It is a market situation where many sellers sell differential products for ex - garments, soaps, detergents etc. Monopolistic competition is clearly visible in retail trade where producers sell differential products.
Entry to this market is not difficult but requires a huge analysis before entering the market. Every firm design the product with different size and various addition of elements to product to attract costumers. Advertisement through different media is done with various offers.

A market is differentiated from another form of market through characteristics like -
1) Number of sellers.
2) nature of commodity.
3) power to influence prices.
4) restrictions or barriers to enter market. 
5) non price competition.
6) nature of demand curve besides other minor characteristics.

Wednesday, 2 May 2018

Problems in Online Building Sanctioning Procedure in Jalgaon Municipal Corporation

The state government declared to launch the online building plan sanction process in all municipal council across the state on  3rd August 2017. The project has been planned by MahaIT coming under directorate of information technology (DIT). The process was planned with the intention of having optimum efficiency in the sanctioning procedure and to eliminate corruption level and the role or impact of agents in the process.

On 26th of January 2018 on the occasion of 69th Republic Day of India the online building sanction process was launched in Jalgaon under Jalgaon Municipal Corporation. However there are certain problems which came into action as the months passed. Lets see them in detail.

Jalgaon Municipal Corporation.

The Softech Company from Pune designed the online building sanctioning procedure software for Jalgaon Zone. However still the software process is not so efficient till today due to several reasons listed below.

  1. Certain Modules in the software are still absent- due to this incomplete information the software neglects even the correct plans.
  2. The Development Control Rules are not feed up to the mark in the software.
  3. The Software is able to check only the basic elements in plan like roominess, ventilation, site margin etc.
  4. The software fails to predict the validity of the documents submitted by the applicants. Documents like 7/12 form, Kharedi khat, Sale Deed etc. The software fails to predict if these documents are of the applicant only.
  5. The basic words used by local architects in plan creates problems - for example words like Passage and Lobby. As lobby is included in FSI where as passage is not however local builders use vice versa words which creates problems.  
  6. The Development Zone Plan  of city is not been included in the software.
  7. There is again a big problem for old sanctioned structure which comes for revised up floor construction plans.
  8. The main and the biggest problem faced not only in Jalgaon MNC but also in various other MNC'S is the old experienced sanctioning officers are not at all familiar with the software.
 This problems have arise due to improper planning of the process as well improper data feed in the software. However still the authorities are working on problems raised.

Friday, 30 March 2018

Educational Visit to Dhom Dam, Wai

The visit to dam site was organised with the intention to have a practical experience of the theoretical knowledge of Dams and Hydraulics. The practical experience to dam site made me understand every minute specification and detailing done while operating a dam. 

The Dhom dam is located on river krishna near dhom village in wai taluka. The main purpose for setting up the dam was for Irrigation purpose. Dhom village is situated at a distance of 37.9 km from Satara city and 7.9 km from Wai. Dhom has epithetic name "Dakshin Kashi" and in old times it was known as "Virat Nagari". The Dhom dam is Earthen/ Gravity Masonry dam.

Specifications of Dam
Name of dam
Dhom Dam
Operating and Maintenance agency
Seismic Zone
Seismic zone IV
Type of Dam
Earthen/ Gravity Masonry
Total Height of dam above Foundation
Total Volume Content of Dam ( TCM)
Design Flood (cumec)
Type of Spillway
Length of Spillway (m)
Crest level of Spillway (m)
Spillway capacity (cumec)
Type of Spillway Gates
No of Spillway Gates
Size of Spillway gates (m x m)
12 x 6.5

Monitoring & Inspection of Dam.

Inspection of dam plays a very important role on dam site. Inspection are a necessary part of owning and operating a dam since early detection of gradual changes can minimize problems and reduce maintenance costs. Therefore Inspections are made daily, monthly and annually according to the need. Routine inspections are also an opportunity to note any vandalism which may have occurred.
  1. Daily/ weekly Inspections- In this part the inspection of river flow observations, precipitation records, water level readings, gate operation, seepage monitoring (if present) is done.
  2. Monthly Inspections-  In this part inspection of  operating equipment, safety equipment, performance and super-facial structure is done.
  3. Annual Inspections- In this part the irrigation of Structural part and operating unit is done.
  4. Detailed Inspections - In this part the detailed survey is conducted by Department of Natural Resources.

Ogee Spillway & Stilling Basin.

A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release flow from dams or leave into a down stream.Spillways release the extra water from the dam which helps the dam to maintain its stability and to avoid the flood or failure of dam.

In Dhom dam the ogee spillway was provided to pass the excess of water from dam. The chute spillway is however most common and basic design which transfers the excess water from upstream face to downstream face in control and smooth manner. These are usually design from ogee curve most often they are lined on the bottom and side with concrete to protect the dam and topography.

When the water in reservoir is above its capacity the gates of dam are opened and the excess water is outlet to the downstream side, however at the time of discharge huge energy is been created  which is dangerous of scour to the riverbed which may threaten the stability of dam and the neighboring river valley slopes and also the villages located on downstream sides. Therefore stilling basin is constructed on the downstream toe of spillway also know as energy dissipators which helps to absorb or cut the high amount of energy produced.


The gates are provided on dam site to lock the force of river water and to collect the water from seasonal rivers which can be used at the time of summers to nearby areas for various means. The Radial gates were provided at dhom dam. There were 5 gates of size 12 x 6.5 m. This gates were operated electrically as well as manually too. 

The manual operation for gate was set up with bad experience of electric motor failure at the time of heavy discharge of water in past. Therefore the manual operation of gates was also provided for dam to avoid such conditions which affects the stability of dam. The emergency gates were also provided on dam which are used at time of maintenance and repair of regular gates.

Cross Sections of Dam

Canals Provide

There were two canals provided from Dhom dam both transfers the dam water to various taluka's of Satara district for successful operation of irrigation purpose. The Right and Left canal were provided from dhom dam. 

Right canal was provided for a distance of 113 km from dhom dam to various taluka's of Satara district. The capacity of right canal is 230 cumec.

left canal was provided for a distance of 166 km from dhom dam to various taluka's of satara district. The capacity of left canal is 750 cumec.

Photos at Dam Site

Friday, 2 March 2018

Study of Waste-Water Treatment Plant

Waste-water relates to output source of water which we get from several activities like bathing, washing, using the toilet, outsource water from industries, rainwater runoff etc. Waste-water treatment is the process of converting the water that is no longer useful for human activities into the bilge water that can be discharged back to environment. Waste water contains all sorts of bacteria, chemicals and toxic elements which are very harmful to discharge directly in the atmosphere therefore the waste-water treatment is been brought into action so as to reduce the contaminants to acceptable level to make water safe to discharge in environment.

There are two forms of waste water treatment plants which depend upon the effluent that is to be treated. The two types of waste water treatment plants are chemical or physical treatment plant & biological treatment plant. Biological waste treatment plants use biological matter and bacteria to break down waste matter whereas physical waste water treatment plants use chemicals and physical process to treat waste water. Biological treatment systems are ideal for treating waste water from households and business premises. Physical waste water treatment are used to treat waste water from industries, manufacturing firms and factories since these firms produce waste water containing toxic chemicals which are hazardous to discharge.

Simple Waste water Treatment Process Diagram.

Procedure of Waste-water Treatment Plant

The following is the step by step process for treating the waste water

Step 1- Waste Water Collection.

This is the first step of any plant to collect the waste water from every part of city. The waste water from buildings, malls, public offices and any other source of waste water is been collected with help of drainage underground pipes at one point and then send to treatment plant.
Drainage Pipes.

Step 2-  Odour Control.

This step plays an important role at treatment plant. The waste water contains various unwanted materials which results in anaerobic or septic conditions. This condition takes place when there is limited flow of oxygen or no dissolved oxygen available for respiration of microbes in waste water. This allows microbes to emerge as an "sulphate reducing bacteria" to thrive. These bacteria use sulphate ion and gives byproduct as hydrogen sulphate (H2S) which smells like rotten egg.

There are many different types of technologies to control odour from waste water collection and treatment systems. The two technologies used are liquid-phase and  vapour-phase technology. The liquid- phase technology is used where both corrosion and odour are concern whereas the vapour-phase technology is used to control odour in air and gas, usually they are used in point-source applications.

Step 3 - Screening.

The next process is of screening where the unwanted floating material is been separated from waste water. The waste water is passed through the screens and floating unwanted materials is been removed. there are three types of screens used  coarse, medium & fine.
  1. Coarse screen has larger openings from 75- 150 mm.
  2. Medium screens has opening from 20-50mm.
  3. Fine screens have openings less than 20mm.

Grit Chamber- The waste water is then passed through grit chamber where the inorganic materials like sand, ash etc are removed. Basically the sedimentation process is been carried out in this part.

Skimming Tanks-  There are chances of having greasy and oily elements in waste water from industries and manufacturing firm outlets. Thus skimming tanks helps to remove this unwanted materials form waste water. The skimming tank is surrounded by baffle walls and the compressed air is been flushed inside from the floor of skimming walls and the rising air bubbles coagulates and solidify these materials and these material are then pushed to side compartment from where these elements are easily removed.

Step 4-  Primary Treatment.

The unwanted materials which are not removed from previous material are removed in this step by application of sedimentation process. The unwanted materials remains in suspended state in flowing water, however when this flowing waste water is stopped and stored in tank called sedimentation tank
then this matter gets settled down due to action of gravity after a certain amount of time. Sometimes the coagulants are used to facilitate the sedimentation process & then this process is called as coagulation- aided sedimentation

The process of sedimentation depends upon some factors like size, shape & specific gravity of particles besides viscosity and flow velocity of  waste-water. In normal process of treatment, sedimentation is usually carried out twice-once before the secondary treatment, referred to as primary sedimentation and after this process the secondary sedimentation is brought to action.

Coagulants: These are chemicals usually positively charged & which form insoluble & gelatinous precipitates with colloidal particles which are negatively charged which are present in waste water and thus this particles become denser and due to gravity action they gets settled down at bottom of sedimentation tank. The most common used coagulants in treatment process are alum (aluminium sulphate), iron salts (ferric sulphate, ferric chloride), lime and soda ash (sodium carbonate), sodium silicate & sodium aluminate.

Step 5- Secondary Treatment. 

This process is also known as activated sludge process. The secondary treatment process involves adding seed sludge to waste water to ensure that it is broken down further. Air is first pumped into huge aeration tank which mix the waste water with seed sludge which is basically small amount of sludge, which fuels the growth of bacteria which uses oxygen and other microbes that consumes the remaining organic matter. This process leads to the production of large particles  that settle down in huge tanks. The waste water passes through large tanks for a period of 3-6 hours. 

Some secondary treatment methods include a secondary clarifier to settle out and the biological floc or filter material grown in  the secondary treatment bioreactor. Some alternative methods are activated sludge, aerated lagoon, aerobic granulation, constructed wetland, membrane bioreactor, rotating biological contactor, trickling filter.

  • Activated Sludge - It is the process of treating sewage and industrial waste waters using air and biological floc composed of bacteria and protozoa.
  • Aerated Lagoon - It is a holding or treatment pond provided with artificial aeration to promote the biological oxidation of waste water. There are many other biological process for waste water treatment for example trickling filters, rotating biological contactors & biofilters.
  • Aerobic Granulation - The biological waste water treatment is often accomplished using conventional activated sludge systems. These systems generally require large surface area for treatments and biomass separation units due to generally poor settling properties of the sludge.

Step 6- Tertiary Treatment.

This stage is similar to those used in water treatment plant which clean raw water for drinking purposes. The treatment Stage has the ability to remove up to 99% of the impurities from waster water. This produces effluent water that is close to drinking water quality. Unfortunately this process tends to be costly as it requires special equipments, well trained and highly skilled operators.

Step 7 - Disinfection. 

In this process the waste water treated from primary and secondary treatment contains some harmful elements which are to be removed so the disinfection process is been brought to action. The waste water is kept in tank known as disinfection  tank which contains chlorine and hypo chlorine present in it which helps to remove the unwanted materials and keep water to acceptable limit for a long time span. The waste water is kept in disinfection tank for nearly 30 min. The UV rays method is also applicable but its to costly therefore the chlorination process is more popular.

Step 8 - Sludge Treatment.

The sludge that is collected during primary and secondary treatment requires concentration and thickening to enable further processing. It is put in to thickening tanks that allow it to settle down & later separate from water this requires a time span of around 24 hours. The remaining water is collected and send back to aeration tank for further treatment. The sludge collected and be used in agriculture lands as manure. 

Thursday, 16 November 2017

Useful Commands of Advance Excel for its Optimum & Efficient Use

Microsoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheets, using a grid of cells arranged in numbered rows and letter-named columns to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations. It has a battery of supplied functions to answer statistical, engineering and financial needs. In addition, it can display data as line graphs, histograms and charts, and with a very limited three-dimensional graphical display.

Here are some useful commands to use excel more efficiently with less time consuming work

A] Commands for Excel Text Functions:

1] Len() : Returns the number of characters of a string.
    Syntax: =len(String). Here string means the position of cell

2] Rept() : Repeat given characters (S) specified number of times
    Syntax: =rept(string, number of times). Here 
number of times means the Repeat value of Character.

3] Concatenate() : Join multiple strings in one string 
    Syntax: =concatenate ( String1, String2, String3,.......)

B]  Commands for Excel Mathematical Functions

1] Sum() : Adds all the numbers given as an argument
    Syntax: =sum(numerical argument).

2] Product() : Multiply all the numbers given as an argument.
    Syntax: =product( numerical argument)

3] SQRT() : Return Square root of a number.
    Syntax: =sqrt(number).

4] MOD() : Returns Reminder
    Syntax: =mod(number,divisor)

5] Fact() : Returns the factorial value of a number.
    Syntax: =fact(number)

C] Commands for Excel Statistical Functions :

1] MIN() : Returns the smallest value from a list of supplied numbers.
    Syntax: =min(number1,number2,.......)

2] Max() :  Returns the largest value from a list of supplied numbers.
    Syntax: = max(number1,number2,.......)

3] Large(): Returns the kth largest value from a list of supplied numbers for given value k.
    Syntax: =large(datatable,k)

4] Small(): Returns the kth smallest value from a list of supplied numbers for given value k.
    Syntax: =small(datatable,k)

5] Count() : Returns the number of numerical value in a supplied set of cells or values
    Syntax: =count(value1, value2,.....)

6] CountA() : Returns the number of blank cells in a supplied set of values
    Syntax: =countA(value1, value2,.....)

7] Count Blank() : Returns the number of cells that satisfy a given criteria.
   Syntax:  =Countblank(data range)

8] Count If() : Returns the number of cells that satisfy a given criteria
    Syntax: =countif(criteria range, criteria).

9] Countifs() : Returns the number of cells that satisfy a set of given criteria 
    Syntax: =countifs(criteria range1, criteria, criteria range2, criteria.......).

10] Average () : Returns the avg of list of supplied numbers
      Syntax: =Average(number1,number2....)

Thus to use excel in effective manner we should go through the advance excel course.

Sunday, 12 November 2017

BIM- Building Information Modelling

What is Building Information Modelling?

Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a term coined to deal successfully with the problem of fragmentation & error in the process of building project creation till its implementation.

Building Information Modelling essentially means developing a system which can house or manage all of the information needed in a particular project in a single DATA REPOSITORY that could be accessed by all project participants and readily incorporated into all project documents
BIM- Operational Network

BIM has a group of software's which are used to share the information with other so work in more simplified and efficient manner in which information can be Extracted, Exchange or Networked to support decision making regarding a building or any built asset. 

These cycle of project gets connected through BIM and it gets easier for all the departments to work in efficient manner.

BIM applicability in Construction, Real Estate, Infrastructure & Project Management (CRIP)  Industry.

A BIM can optimise overall construction time by highlighting bottlenecks & site constraints during construction work. In the USA, since 2007, it is mandatory to use BIM within the design process on any project funded by the GSA. Integration of BIM within the process may not reduce design & documentation time, but can minimize the efforts time and money required during the various construction phases. Moreover, good use of BIM improves participants efficiency &effective collaboration, thus speeding-up the entire process & produces operative information to run the facility. 

A review of literature focusing on BIM in India shows limited adoption of the same by the construction industry.Even today more than 90% of the architectural & construction firms are using 2D CAD based tools for designing & development of the project. It was found that some organisation are proposing integration of BIM based tools during bidding stage, however these tools are not the part of design development stages and other stages despite realizing the benefits such as improved efficiency.

Benefits through BIM Process

  1. Design Visualization & improved design communication
  2. Improve coordination & clash detection.
  3. Automates the quantity take of process.
  4. All building data at one place through data repository
  5. BIM allows energy analysis for sustainable design at early phase of design.                    
List of Various Software's as Part of BIM Technology.

Architecture: Autodesk Revit Architecture, Graphisoft ArchiCAD, Nemetschek Allplan Architecture, Gehry Technologies.

Structures: Autodesk Revit Structure, Bentley Structural Modeler, Bentley Ram, STAAD & ProSteel, Telka Structure. 

Friday, 18 August 2017

Vishwaniketan's Under Graduate Fellowship Program

Vishwaniketan’s Institute of Management Entrepreneurship & Engineering Technology (iMEET) is approved by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), New Delhi, HRD Ministry, and Government of India. It is affiliated to Mumbai University. The CTIF-Vishwaniketan network is responsible for our collaboration abroad and in India.

Vishwaniketan works with a vision to produced quality engineers who will positively impact there own life and also bussiness and society at large. Vishwaniketan focus on Project Based Learning approch to solve human and technology Problems. Vishwaniketan aim to create socially aware entrepreneurs who will empower society with relevant technology and business solution.

What is UG Fellowship Program of Vishwaniketan?

UG Fellowship Program is traning program which deals to pursue pratical and project based Learning in foregin universities. The best possible global exposure and learning provided to the student help them transform themselves into ideal global citizens .Vishwaniketan not only believe on this philosophy but ,has also taken major positive steps towards achieving this goal by implementing international programs with foreign universities.

Collaboration with foreign universities.

Vishwaniketan has collaboration with foregin universities throughout the globe. Vishwaniketan organise UG Fellowship Program for engineering  students all over india which are been selected on the basis of their projects.

The universities which are collaborated with vishwaniketan are as follows:

1) Aalborg University, Denmark.
2) UNESCO chair on PBL.
3) Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria.
4) Ural Federal University, Russia.
5) Stevens Institute of Technology, New Jersey-USA.
6) University of Rome-TorVergata, Italy.
7) Athens Information Technology, Greece.
8)National Technical University of, Ukraine "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute".
9)CTIF, Princeton University, USA.
10) Global ICT Standardisation Forum for India (GISFI).
11) Mae Fah Luang University, Thailand (TBC).
12) University of Cape Town, South Africa (TBC).
13) University of Arkansas, USA (TBC).

Selection Procedure of 2017

Selection Procedure for UG Fellowship Program

The selection process is been distributed in 5 steps as follow

Step1: Registration Process

In this step students should visit and register themself.

Step 2: Projects Completed by Past Batch 

In this step the students should go through the project which are completed by last batch students. The projects completed by students are available on website.

Step 3: Projects offered

In this step the students should go through the projects offered by the foreign universities. This step is very important for students to go through the projects and select proper universities which are related to the projects which studentshave done in past.

Step 4: Improve your chances

Vishwaniketan also offers traning of softwares for students in january under their VAP program. This will help student to have efficiency and fast complition of project.

Step 5: Interviews

In this process the selection committee will call students for interviews which will be based on their projects done in past as well as in indentifying the qualities and skills which are required for UG FELLOWSHIP.

The students should Carry Hard Copies of
1)Application Form (Emailed at
2) Two Copies of Latest Resume.  
3) Statement of Purpose(SOP).
4)Passport Copy (if Available).
5)List of Projects Done so far.
6)Broad areas you wish to work.

Note the interview for long distance students are  conducted on Skype.

Contact Information.

Survey No-52 Off Mumbai-Pune Expressway Kumbhivali, Tal- Khalapur,Maharashtra 410203.

Phone: (02192) 274206/274207/274208/274210