Sunday, 24 March 2019

Research Proposal

In every academic and professional field the research endeavorus are preceded by a research proposal. Research proposal is something that helps our research supervisor to know total research process that we propose to undertake,and also helps in examine, suitability and validity of the research. In any academic field, our research proposal will have to undergo number of approvals. Unless the approvals are provided we are not able to start our research process. Hence it is very important to study closely what constitutes in a research proposal. It is mandatory to have a research proposal in terms of both Qualitative and Quantitative research. Despite having a similar structure of proposal the difference lies between the methodologies and procedure followed to to conduct the research. 

Picture by - Siddhartha shukla

A research proposal is a overview plan of entire research work that is to be conducted. It is basically a designed strategy to find the solutions of problems and to conclude the objectives of the research. A research proposal should outline the various task you plan to undertake to full fill your research questions. Main function of research proposal is to have a detail operational plan for obtaining answers to the research questions. The research proposal should provide answers to the following stated important points

  1. What are we proposing to do
  2. how we plan to proceed
  3. why we selected the proposed strategy.

Contents of Research Proposal

A research proposal should contain the following information about the study
  1. Introduction (Including a brief literature review);
  2. Theoretical framework;
  3. Conceptual framework;
  4. Objectives or research questions;
  5. hypotheses to be tested, if applicable;
  6. Study design that we are proposing to adopt;
  7. Sampling design and sample size;
  8. Data-processing procedures;
  9. Proposed Chapters;
  10. Problems and limitations of study;
  11. Proposed time frame of the study.
A research proposal should communicate the purpose and plan of the research in such a way that;
  • Enables you to return to the proposal for your own guidelines in decision making at different stages of the research process;
  • Convinces your research supervisor to allow you to work on the research.

Some Important Points to be Considered

Introduction of Research Proposal

Generally  your research topic is introduced in 3 categories (i) Globally (ii) Nationally (iii) Locally.
Always start with a broad perspective of the main subject area you are going to work on, before gradually narrowing the focus to central problem. Always cover the area on following aspects

  • an overview of main area of your research study
  • historical perspective 
  • philosophical or ideological issues relating to topic
  • major theories
  • literature review
  • main problems, issues and advance under the topic
  • important theoretical & practical issues related to topic 
  • main findings relating to core issue.

Objectives of the study

The major points that your research is based on should be enlisted in this section. Always use action-oriented verb such as 'to determine','to find', & 'to ascertain' in formulating the objectives and sub-objectives. Also your objectives should be concluded in the conclusion with help of results and findings.

Hypotheses to be tested

A statement of assumptions about the prevalence of a phenomenon or about a relationships between two variables that you plan to test within the framework of your study is nothing but the hypothesis.
Hypothesis formulation have an obligation to draw conclusion about in report. 

Study Design

The study design should cover detail plan of proving/answering your research questions in descriptive, cross-sectional, before-and-after, experimental or non experimental design. Include all the details of various logistical procedures we intend to follow while executing the study design.

Work Schedule 

You must set a detail work time plan that must act as a guideline to conduct and finish your research within certain time frame.

Saturday, 26 January 2019

Research Paper - Format to present your research

Research Paper is used for exploring and identifying scientific, technical & social issues. Research paper is a intellectual  property owned by author therefore it is very important to have a proper, planned and sound research process for your paper. So let us see step wise format of research paper.

Flow Chart of Research Paper

Step 1: The first step to start a research is to define the Title of your paper. The title of paper should be of zero ambiguity. The title of paper should be well defined to address the problem and should be easy for others to understand when read.

Step 2: In step 2 you should define the abstract of your research paper. Abstract is nothing but the summary of your research defining the root gaps on topic and ways to overcome them. Also keywords should be highlighted.

Step 3: In step 3 you should define the introduction of your paper. Introduce your research topic in three sub step format
  1. Global - Introduce your research topic with reference to work done on your topic at international level.
  2. National - Introduce your research topic with reference to work done on your topic at National level.
  3. Local - Introduce your research topic with reference to work done on your topic at local level.
Step 4: In this step you have to define the objective of your research paper. This is the most important step in your research paper where you state or define the gaps/problems you are working on in this research.

Step 5: In this step you have to define the Literature Review  of your paper. Literature Review is the process of analyzing the past research on your  research topic basically through various research paper, articles etc on your research topic. Basically Literature Review helps us to know about what all things and gaps been worked out in world on our research topic in past. Also introduce you to various other gaps on your research. However this is the very first step before making a research paper.

Step 6: In this step you define the methodology you adopted to conduct your research. Generally first step in methodology is Data Collection and second is the Data Analysis.

The data collection can be done in 4 ways -
  1. Collection of Primary Data
  2. Observation Method
  3. Interview method - (i) Telephonic Interview (ii) Personal Interview 
  4. Collection of data through Questionnaire.
This step is also known as Research Design step where you categorized your research design in four sub research designs -
  1. Sample Design
  2. Observational Design
  3. Operational Design 
  4. Statistical Design
Step 7: In this step you conduct various experiments in your research to do various sort of analysis to obtain the required results. This results helps you to get a brief clarification of validity of your assumptions made at the start

Step 8: In this step you conclude your research. In this step it is mandatory to conclude the research based on the objectives you have mentioned earlier on the basis of the results obtained in step 7. If the objectives of research are not concluded then that research becomes pointless.

Step 9: This is the last step of your research where you have to provide the References. References is about the data you have used in your research which was already been published by other authors in past. Giving references is generally citing the papers, articles etc you have used in your research paper from internet. If you fail to cite the research paper you have used then it will be detected in plagiarism report and also may get subjected to copy right act. Therefore it is very important to cite the data you have used.    

Tuesday, 22 January 2019

Services Selection Board Interview

Services Selection Board interview

Service Selection Board interview is a six/five days interview, conducted to find out the suitability of a candidate for the armed forces in India. This interview comprises of number of tests, which are designed to check the Officers Like Qualities of a candidate. Once the candidate possess certain OLQ's he/she gets selected for final selection process subjected to medical fitness test.
Source- Google Images.

How to apply for SSB?

To apply for SSB there are basically two modes 1) Direct Mode  & 2) Indirect Mode Entry.

Direct Entry :  In this mode you don't have to give any written test. All you need to do is fill up the form, which is generally online & provide your educational details, based on which you are applying for. There is cut off percentage decided by the concerned authority & candidates who have higher percentage than cut off in their course are called for SSB. Entries like Navy, TGC Army, SSC- Tech Army etc. 

Indirect Entry: In the entries of such type, you have to pass a written examination. The cut off for their score is decided and the candidates scoring above the cut off are called for SSB. Entries like AFCAT, CDSE & NDA.

SSB Selection Centers

Selection Board
11 SSB, 14 SSB, 18 SSB, 19 SSB, 34 SSB
Selection Center East (SCE)
Allahabad, UP
20 SSB, 21 SSB, 22 SSB
Selection Center Central (SCE)
Bhopal, MP
17 SSB, 24 SSB
Selection Center South (SCS)
Bangalore, Karnataka
33 SSB
Selection Center South (SCS)
Bhopal, MP
12 SSB
Selection Centre South (SCC)
Bangalore, Karnataka
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Navshakti Nagar, Vizag Andhra Pradesh
Dehradun, Uttarakhand.
Mysore, Karnataka
Gandhinagar, Gujarat
Kanchrapara, West Bengal

Days at SSB at a Glance 

Day 0: Candidates report at the given location of railway station on the this day (day 0). Candidates get a call up letter which will contain the details about the location and time when and where you have to report. A representative from the board will accompany the candidates to board premises. Candidates will fill a form at board. Mostly on day 0 no testing is conducted, however for AFCAT entries there is no day 0.

Day 1: This is the day when screening is held. The phase-1 test is held in morning & results are after lunch. The candidates who are not selected are dropped back to the railway station. The remaining candidates are asked to fill up very important form today which is the Personal Information Questionnaire  (PIQ Form).

Day 2: The phase-2 test begins from day 2. The first in line will be the psychological test. For candidates applying for Air-Force and are not through NDA/CDSE you will be asked to give Pilot Aptitude and Battery test (PBAT).

Day 3 & Day 4: You will get an advance routine of your tests in AFSB's and in other boards too you will be informed much in advance. On Day 3 & Day 4 your group tasks and personal interview are done. Groups are divided according to chest numbers.

Day 5: This is the final day of interview Board Conference is done for all the candidates. The candidates who are recommended are retained for medicals and sometimes for PBAT.

 Test in SSB

Phase-1 Testing
  1. Officers Intelligence and Rating Test (OIR)
  2. Picture Perception & Description Test (PPDT)
Phase- 2 Testing
  1. Psychological Tests- i) Word Association Test (WAT), ii) Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT),                                      iii) Situation Reaction Test (SRT), iv) Self-Description Test (SDT).
  2. Group Tests
  3. Personal Interview
  4. Board Conference
  5.  Pilot Aptitude and Battery Test (For Flying branch only) 

Wednesday, 1 August 2018

Market Analysis

Market is defined as a group of firms and individuals that are in touch with each other to buy or sell some goods and services. It is also considered as a platform where sellers and buyers meet for settling a transaction. Depending upon a commodity and supporting factors, a market can be local, national and international.
To enter in market we should have a brief analysis of some points-
1) Brief study of the type of market you are going to enter.
2) Brief analysis of SWOT ie Strength Weakness Opportunities Threat.
3) Data collection of customers and potential customers.
4) The demand and supply rate of market.
5) data collection of customers to be target for your product sales.

In economic analysis, markets are generally classified into four categories
1) Perfect competition
2) Monopoly
3) Oligopoly
4) Monopolistic.

Perfect competition- It is open market where we have large number of buyers and sellers. Due to large participation of buyers and sellers prevents a single seller or buyer from influencing the price. This kind of market involves free entry and exit and also grants complete information about the market price, demand, supply etc. Therefore having an ample information prevents a single seller and buyer from influencing the price.

Monopoly- In this market producers sells a homogeneous and unique product. Due to this the producer has almost near total control on the supply. This reflects in changes of price of product as per demands.
Some examples of Monopoly are public utility services which are usually controlled by the government.  But since government is considered to work in the welfare of people therefore it is expected that the government would not exploit the consumers. The entry to this market is highly restricted or almost nil. If in extreme cases entry is allowed then the government acts as a regulator.

Oligopoly - In this market there are few sellers selling standardized products or services. The best examples of this market are airline companies, cement manufacturers, steel manufacturers, computer manufacturers etc. This type of market allows free entry but requires huge initial investment, firm organisations, advance technologies. Due to which entry to this market is very difficult. The firms have a huge influence on the prices of products due to differential products.
In an oligopoly market, price remains rigid. This is due to the fear about the reaction of their rivals. An increase in price would not be responded to buy any decrease will be followed by similar or at times a larger reduction in price. Such fears make a firm stick to a particular price without further changes in order to avoid a possible price war.

Monopolistic- It is a market situation where many sellers sell differential products for ex - garments, soaps, detergents etc. Monopolistic competition is clearly visible in retail trade where producers sell differential products.
Entry to this market is not difficult but requires a huge analysis before entering the market. Every firm design the product with different size and various addition of elements to product to attract costumers. Advertisement through different media is done with various offers.

A market is differentiated from another form of market through characteristics like -
1) Number of sellers.
2) nature of commodity.
3) power to influence prices.
4) restrictions or barriers to enter market. 
5) non price competition.
6) nature of demand curve besides other minor characteristics.

Wednesday, 2 May 2018

Problems in Online Building Sanctioning Procedure in Jalgaon Municipal Corporation

The state government declared to launch the online building plan sanction process in all municipal council across the state on  3rd August 2017. The project has been planned by MahaIT coming under directorate of information technology (DIT). The process was planned with the intention of having optimum efficiency in the sanctioning procedure and to eliminate corruption level and the role or impact of agents in the process.

On 26th of January 2018 on the occasion of 69th Republic Day of India the online building sanction process was launched in Jalgaon under Jalgaon Municipal Corporation. However there are certain problems which came into action as the months passed. Lets see them in detail.

Jalgaon Municipal Corporation.

The Softech Company from Pune designed the online building sanctioning procedure software for Jalgaon Zone. However still the software process is not so efficient till today due to several reasons listed below.

  1. Certain Modules in the software are still absent- due to this incomplete information the software neglects even the correct plans.
  2. The Development Control Rules are not feed up to the mark in the software.
  3. The Software is able to check only the basic elements in plan like roominess, ventilation, site margin etc.
  4. The software fails to predict the validity of the documents submitted by the applicants. Documents like 7/12 form, Kharedi khat, Sale Deed etc. The software fails to predict if these documents are of the applicant only.
  5. The basic words used by local architects in plan creates problems - for example words like Passage and Lobby. As lobby is included in FSI where as passage is not however local builders use vice versa words which creates problems.  
  6. The Development Zone Plan  of city is not been included in the software.
  7. There is again a big problem for old sanctioned structure which comes for revised up floor construction plans.
  8. The main and the biggest problem faced not only in Jalgaon MNC but also in various other MNC'S is the old experienced sanctioning officers are not at all familiar with the software.
 This problems have arise due to improper planning of the process as well improper data feed in the software. However still the authorities are working on problems raised.

Friday, 30 March 2018

Educational Visit to Dhom Dam, Wai

The visit to dam site was organised with the intention to have a practical experience of the theoretical knowledge of Dams and Hydraulics. The practical experience to dam site made me understand every minute specification and detailing done while operating a dam. 

The Dhom dam is located on river krishna near dhom village in wai taluka. The main purpose for setting up the dam was for Irrigation purpose. Dhom village is situated at a distance of 37.9 km from Satara city and 7.9 km from Wai. Dhom has epithetic name "Dakshin Kashi" and in old times it was known as "Virat Nagari". The Dhom dam is Earthen/ Gravity Masonry dam.

Specifications of Dam
Name of dam
Dhom Dam
Operating and Maintenance agency
Seismic Zone
Seismic zone IV
Type of Dam
Earthen/ Gravity Masonry
Total Height of dam above Foundation
Total Volume Content of Dam ( TCM)
Design Flood (cumec)
Type of Spillway
Length of Spillway (m)
Crest level of Spillway (m)
Spillway capacity (cumec)
Type of Spillway Gates
No of Spillway Gates
Size of Spillway gates (m x m)
12 x 6.5

Monitoring & Inspection of Dam.

Inspection of dam plays a very important role on dam site. Inspection are a necessary part of owning and operating a dam since early detection of gradual changes can minimize problems and reduce maintenance costs. Therefore Inspections are made daily, monthly and annually according to the need. Routine inspections are also an opportunity to note any vandalism which may have occurred.
  1. Daily/ weekly Inspections- In this part the inspection of river flow observations, precipitation records, water level readings, gate operation, seepage monitoring (if present) is done.
  2. Monthly Inspections-  In this part inspection of  operating equipment, safety equipment, performance and super-facial structure is done.
  3. Annual Inspections- In this part the irrigation of Structural part and operating unit is done.
  4. Detailed Inspections - In this part the detailed survey is conducted by Department of Natural Resources.

Ogee Spillway & Stilling Basin.

A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release flow from dams or leave into a down stream.Spillways release the extra water from the dam which helps the dam to maintain its stability and to avoid the flood or failure of dam.

In Dhom dam the ogee spillway was provided to pass the excess of water from dam. The chute spillway is however most common and basic design which transfers the excess water from upstream face to downstream face in control and smooth manner. These are usually design from ogee curve most often they are lined on the bottom and side with concrete to protect the dam and topography.

When the water in reservoir is above its capacity the gates of dam are opened and the excess water is outlet to the downstream side, however at the time of discharge huge energy is been created  which is dangerous of scour to the riverbed which may threaten the stability of dam and the neighboring river valley slopes and also the villages located on downstream sides. Therefore stilling basin is constructed on the downstream toe of spillway also know as energy dissipators which helps to absorb or cut the high amount of energy produced.


The gates are provided on dam site to lock the force of river water and to collect the water from seasonal rivers which can be used at the time of summers to nearby areas for various means. The Radial gates were provided at dhom dam. There were 5 gates of size 12 x 6.5 m. This gates were operated electrically as well as manually too. 

The manual operation for gate was set up with bad experience of electric motor failure at the time of heavy discharge of water in past. Therefore the manual operation of gates was also provided for dam to avoid such conditions which affects the stability of dam. The emergency gates were also provided on dam which are used at time of maintenance and repair of regular gates.

Cross Sections of Dam

Canals Provide

There were two canals provided from Dhom dam both transfers the dam water to various taluka's of Satara district for successful operation of irrigation purpose. The Right and Left canal were provided from dhom dam. 

Right canal was provided for a distance of 113 km from dhom dam to various taluka's of Satara district. The capacity of right canal is 230 cumec.

left canal was provided for a distance of 166 km from dhom dam to various taluka's of satara district. The capacity of left canal is 750 cumec.

Photos at Dam Site