Friday, 2 March 2018

Study of Waste-Water Treatment Plant

Waste-water relates to output source of water which we get from several activities like bathing, washing, using the toilet, outsource water from industries, rainwater runoff etc. Waste-water treatment is the process of converting the water that is no longer useful for human activities into the bilge water that can be discharged back to environment. Waste water contains all sorts of bacteria, chemicals and toxic elements which are very harmful to discharge directly in the atmosphere therefore the waste-water treatment is been brought into action so as to reduce the contaminants to acceptable level to make water safe to discharge in environment.

There are two forms of waste water treatment plants which depend upon the effluent that is to be treated. The two types of waste water treatment plants are chemical or physical treatment plant & biological treatment plant. Biological waste treatment plants use biological matter and bacteria to break down waste matter whereas physical waste water treatment plants use chemicals and physical process to treat waste water. Biological treatment systems are ideal for treating waste water from households and business premises. Physical waste water treatment are used to treat waste water from industries, manufacturing firms and factories since these firms produce waste water containing toxic chemicals which are hazardous to discharge.

Simple Waste water Treatment Process Diagram.

Procedure of Waste-water Treatment Plant

The following is the step by step process for treating the waste water

Step 1- Waste Water Collection.

This is the first step of any plant to collect the waste water from every part of city. The waste water from buildings, malls, public offices and any other source of waste water is been collected with help of drainage underground pipes at one point and then send to treatment plant.
Drainage Pipes.

Step 2-  Odour Control.

This step plays an important role at treatment plant. The waste water contains various unwanted materials which results in anaerobic or septic conditions. This condition takes place when there is limited flow of oxygen or no dissolved oxygen available for respiration of microbes in waste water. This allows microbes to emerge as an "sulphate reducing bacteria" to thrive. These bacteria use sulphate ion and gives byproduct as hydrogen sulphate (H2S) which smells like rotten egg.

There are many different types of technologies to control odour from waste water collection and treatment systems. The two technologies used are liquid-phase and  vapour-phase technology. The liquid- phase technology is used where both corrosion and odour are concern whereas the vapour-phase technology is used to control odour in air and gas, usually they are used in point-source applications.

Step 3 - Screening.

The next process is of screening where the unwanted floating material is been separated from waste water. The waste water is passed through the screens and floating unwanted materials is been removed. there are three types of screens used  coarse, medium & fine.
  1. Coarse screen has larger openings from 75- 150 mm.
  2. Medium screens has opening from 20-50mm.
  3. Fine screens have openings less than 20mm.

Grit Chamber- The waste water is then passed through grit chamber where the inorganic materials like sand, ash etc are removed. Basically the sedimentation process is been carried out in this part.

Skimming Tanks-  There are chances of having greasy and oily elements in waste water from industries and manufacturing firm outlets. Thus skimming tanks helps to remove this unwanted materials form waste water. The skimming tank is surrounded by baffle walls and the compressed air is been flushed inside from the floor of skimming walls and the rising air bubbles coagulates and solidify these materials and these material are then pushed to side compartment from where these elements are easily removed.

Step 4-  Primary Treatment.

The unwanted materials which are not removed from previous material are removed in this step by application of sedimentation process. The unwanted materials remains in suspended state in flowing water, however when this flowing waste water is stopped and stored in tank called sedimentation tank
then this matter gets settled down due to action of gravity after a certain amount of time. Sometimes the coagulants are used to facilitate the sedimentation process & then this process is called as coagulation- aided sedimentation

The process of sedimentation depends upon some factors like size, shape & specific gravity of particles besides viscosity and flow velocity of  waste-water. In normal process of treatment, sedimentation is usually carried out twice-once before the secondary treatment, referred to as primary sedimentation and after this process the secondary sedimentation is brought to action.

Coagulants: These are chemicals usually positively charged & which form insoluble & gelatinous precipitates with colloidal particles which are negatively charged which are present in waste water and thus this particles become denser and due to gravity action they gets settled down at bottom of sedimentation tank. The most common used coagulants in treatment process are alum (aluminium sulphate), iron salts (ferric sulphate, ferric chloride), lime and soda ash (sodium carbonate), sodium silicate & sodium aluminate.

Step 5- Secondary Treatment. 

This process is also known as activated sludge process. The secondary treatment process involves adding seed sludge to waste water to ensure that it is broken down further. Air is first pumped into huge aeration tank which mix the waste water with seed sludge which is basically small amount of sludge, which fuels the growth of bacteria which uses oxygen and other microbes that consumes the remaining organic matter. This process leads to the production of large particles  that settle down in huge tanks. The waste water passes through large tanks for a period of 3-6 hours. 

Some secondary treatment methods include a secondary clarifier to settle out and the biological floc or filter material grown in  the secondary treatment bioreactor. Some alternative methods are activated sludge, aerated lagoon, aerobic granulation, constructed wetland, membrane bioreactor, rotating biological contactor, trickling filter.

  • Activated Sludge - It is the process of treating sewage and industrial waste waters using air and biological floc composed of bacteria and protozoa.
  • Aerated Lagoon - It is a holding or treatment pond provided with artificial aeration to promote the biological oxidation of waste water. There are many other biological process for waste water treatment for example trickling filters, rotating biological contactors & biofilters.
  • Aerobic Granulation - The biological waste water treatment is often accomplished using conventional activated sludge systems. These systems generally require large surface area for treatments and biomass separation units due to generally poor settling properties of the sludge.

Step 6- Tertiary Treatment.

This stage is similar to those used in water treatment plant which clean raw water for drinking purposes. The treatment Stage has the ability to remove up to 99% of the impurities from waster water. This produces effluent water that is close to drinking water quality. Unfortunately this process tends to be costly as it requires special equipments, well trained and highly skilled operators.

Step 7 - Disinfection. 

In this process the waste water treated from primary and secondary treatment contains some harmful elements which are to be removed so the disinfection process is been brought to action. The waste water is kept in tank known as disinfection  tank which contains chlorine and hypo chlorine present in it which helps to remove the unwanted materials and keep water to acceptable limit for a long time span. The waste water is kept in disinfection tank for nearly 30 min. The UV rays method is also applicable but its to costly therefore the chlorination process is more popular.

Step 8 - Sludge Treatment.

The sludge that is collected during primary and secondary treatment requires concentration and thickening to enable further processing. It is put in to thickening tanks that allow it to settle down & later separate from water this requires a time span of around 24 hours. The remaining water is collected and send back to aeration tank for further treatment. The sludge collected and be used in agriculture lands as manure. 

Thursday, 16 November 2017

Useful Commands of Advance Excel for its Optimum & Efficient Use

Microsoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheets, using a grid of cells arranged in numbered rows and letter-named columns to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations. It has a battery of supplied functions to answer statistical, engineering and financial needs. In addition, it can display data as line graphs, histograms and charts, and with a very limited three-dimensional graphical display.

Here are some useful commands to use excel more efficiently with less time consuming work

A] Commands for Excel Text Functions:

1] Len() : Returns the number of characters of a string.
    Syntax: =len(String). Here string means the position of cell

2] Rept() : Repeat given characters (S) specified number of times
    Syntax: =rept(string, number of times). Here 
number of times means the Repeat value of Character.

3] Concatenate() : Join multiple strings in one string 
    Syntax: =concatenate ( String1, String2, String3,.......)

B]  Commands for Excel Mathematical Functions

1] Sum() : Adds all the numbers given as an argument
    Syntax: =sum(numerical argument).

2] Product() : Multiply all the numbers given as an argument.
    Syntax: =product( numerical argument)

3] SQRT() : Return Square root of a number.
    Syntax: =sqrt(number).

4] MOD() : Returns Reminder
    Syntax: =mod(number,divisor)

5] Fact() : Returns the factorial value of a number.
    Syntax: =fact(number)

C] Commands for Excel Statistical Functions :

1] MIN() : Returns the smallest value from a list of supplied numbers.
    Syntax: =min(number1,number2,.......)

2] Max() :  Returns the largest value from a list of supplied numbers.
    Syntax: = max(number1,number2,.......)

3] Large(): Returns the kth largest value from a list of supplied numbers for given value k.
    Syntax: =large(datatable,k)

4] Small(): Returns the kth smallest value from a list of supplied numbers for given value k.
    Syntax: =small(datatable,k)

5] Count() : Returns the number of numerical value in a supplied set of cells or values
    Syntax: =count(value1, value2,.....)

6] CountA() : Returns the number of blank cells in a supplied set of values
    Syntax: =countA(value1, value2,.....)

7] Count Blank() : Returns the number of cells that satisfy a given criteria.
   Syntax:  =Countblank(data range)

8] Count If() : Returns the number of cells that satisfy a given criteria
    Syntax: =countif(criteria range, criteria).

9] Countifs() : Returns the number of cells that satisfy a set of given criteria 
    Syntax: =countifs(criteria range1, criteria, criteria range2, criteria.......).

10] Average () : Returns the avg of list of supplied numbers
      Syntax: =Average(number1,number2....)

Thus to use excel in effective manner we should go through the advance excel course.

Sunday, 12 November 2017

BIM- Building Information Modelling

What is Building Information Modelling?

Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a term coined to deal successfully with the problem of fragmentation & error in the process of building project creation till its implementation.

Building Information Modelling essentially means developing a system which can house or manage all of the information needed in a particular project in a single DATA REPOSITORY that could be accessed by all project participants and readily incorporated into all project documents
BIM- Operational Network

BIM has a group of software's which are used to share the information with other so work in more simplified and efficient manner in which information can be Extracted, Exchange or Networked to support decision making regarding a building or any built asset. 

These cycle of project gets connected through BIM and it gets easier for all the departments to work in efficient manner.

BIM applicability in Construction, Real Estate, Infrastructure & Project Management (CRIP)  Industry.

A BIM can optimise overall construction time by highlighting bottlenecks & site constraints during construction work. In the USA, since 2007, it is mandatory to use BIM within the design process on any project funded by the GSA. Integration of BIM within the process may not reduce design & documentation time, but can minimize the efforts time and money required during the various construction phases. Moreover, good use of BIM improves participants efficiency &effective collaboration, thus speeding-up the entire process & produces operative information to run the facility. 

A review of literature focusing on BIM in India shows limited adoption of the same by the construction industry.Even today more than 90% of the architectural & construction firms are using 2D CAD based tools for designing & development of the project. It was found that some organisation are proposing integration of BIM based tools during bidding stage, however these tools are not the part of design development stages and other stages despite realizing the benefits such as improved efficiency.

Benefits through BIM Process

  1. Design Visualization & improved design communication
  2. Improve coordination & clash detection.
  3. Automates the quantity take of process.
  4. All building data at one place through data repository
  5. BIM allows energy analysis for sustainable design at early phase of design.                    
List of Various Software's as Part of BIM Technology.

Architecture: Autodesk Revit Architecture, Graphisoft ArchiCAD, Nemetschek Allplan Architecture, Gehry Technologies.

Structures: Autodesk Revit Structure, Bentley Structural Modeler, Bentley Ram, STAAD & ProSteel, Telka Structure. 

Friday, 18 August 2017

Vishwaniketan's Under Graduate Fellowship Program

Vishwaniketan’s Institute of Management Entrepreneurship & Engineering Technology (iMEET) is approved by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), New Delhi, HRD Ministry, and Government of India. It is affiliated to Mumbai University. The CTIF-Vishwaniketan network is responsible for our collaboration abroad and in India.

Vishwaniketan works with a vision to produced quality engineers who will positively impact there own life and also bussiness and society at large. Vishwaniketan focus on Project Based Learning approch to solve human and technology Problems. Vishwaniketan aim to create socially aware entrepreneurs who will empower society with relevant technology and business solution.

What is UG Fellowship Program of Vishwaniketan?

UG Fellowship Program is traning program which deals to pursue pratical and project based Learning in foregin universities. The best possible global exposure and learning provided to the student help them transform themselves into ideal global citizens .Vishwaniketan not only believe on this philosophy but ,has also taken major positive steps towards achieving this goal by implementing international programs with foreign universities.

Collaboration with foreign universities.

Vishwaniketan has collaboration with foregin universities throughout the globe. Vishwaniketan organise UG Fellowship Program for engineering  students all over india which are been selected on the basis of their projects.

The universities which are collaborated with vishwaniketan are as follows:

1) Aalborg University, Denmark.
2) UNESCO chair on PBL.
3) Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria.
4) Ural Federal University, Russia.
5) Stevens Institute of Technology, New Jersey-USA.
6) University of Rome-TorVergata, Italy.
7) Athens Information Technology, Greece.
8)National Technical University of, Ukraine "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute".
9)CTIF, Princeton University, USA.
10) Global ICT Standardisation Forum for India (GISFI).
11) Mae Fah Luang University, Thailand (TBC).
12) University of Cape Town, South Africa (TBC).
13) University of Arkansas, USA (TBC).

Selection Procedure of 2017

Selection Procedure for UG Fellowship Program

The selection process is been distributed in 5 steps as follow

Step1: Registration Process

In this step students should visit and register themself.

Step 2: Projects Completed by Past Batch 

In this step the students should go through the project which are completed by last batch students. The projects completed by students are available on website.

Step 3: Projects offered

In this step the students should go through the projects offered by the foreign universities. This step is very important for students to go through the projects and select proper universities which are related to the projects which studentshave done in past.

Step 4: Improve your chances

Vishwaniketan also offers traning of softwares for students in january under their VAP program. This will help student to have efficiency and fast complition of project.

Step 5: Interviews

In this process the selection committee will call students for interviews which will be based on their projects done in past as well as in indentifying the qualities and skills which are required for UG FELLOWSHIP.

The students should Carry Hard Copies of
1)Application Form (Emailed at
2) Two Copies of Latest Resume.  
3) Statement of Purpose(SOP).
4)Passport Copy (if Available).
5)List of Projects Done so far.
6)Broad areas you wish to work.

Note the interview for long distance students are  conducted on Skype.

Contact Information.

Survey No-52 Off Mumbai-Pune Expressway Kumbhivali, Tal- Khalapur,Maharashtra 410203.

Phone: (02192) 274206/274207/274208/274210


Friday, 28 July 2017

The Indian Rupee Will Make you feel Rich.

Every one has a dream to go abroad and explore world but most of us eliminate the idea by the fear of cost. But here are some countries where Indian currency will make you rich.

These countries are also the best option for us to have start-up industries or to have Indian owned Multinational Companies Branches in these countries.

1) Bolivia: 1 Bolivian Boliviano = 9.28 Indian Rupee.

2) Paraguay : 1 INR = 74.26 Guarani.

3) Zimbabwe: 1 INR = 5.85 ZWD.

4) Costa Rica : 1 INR = 8.15 Colons.

5) Belarus : 1 INR = 216 Ruble.

6) Cambodia : 1 INR = 63.93 Riel.

7) Vietnam : 1 INR = 338.35 Dong.

8) Mongolia : 1 INR = 29.83 Tugrik.

9) Hungary : 1 INR = 4.22 Forint.

10) Nepal : 1 INR = 1.6 Nepalese Rupee.

11) Sri Lanka : 1 INR = 2.08 Sri Lankan Rupee.

12) Algeria : 1 INR = 1.63 Algerian Dinars.

13) Indonesia: 1 INR = 197 Indonesian Rupiah.

14) Japan: 1 INR = 1.73 Japanese Yen.

15) Iceland: 1INR = 1.72  Icelandic Krona.

16) Chile: 1INR = approximately 10 Chilean Peso.

17) Uzbekistan: 1INR =  44.76 Uzbekistani Som.

18) Djibouti: 1INR = 2.65 Djiboutian Franc.

19) Yemen: 1INR = 3.74 Yemeni Rial.

20) South Korea : 1 INR =  16.52 South Korean Won.

21) Laos 1 INR = 120.35 Laotian Kip.

Indian Currency may be less as compared to the currency of developed nations like USA and UK but Indian currency is far more rich currency in many countries of world as stated above.

We can not only choose the above stated countries for our holidays but also can setup industries in these countries in low amount. However there are some factors that are to be taken into consideration before setting up industries in these countries.

Wednesday, 12 July 2017

Ural Federal Launches Engineering Master Courses in English.

Golden opportunity for students who wants to study abroad here the opportunity to study in Ural federal university Russia.

Civil Engineering

Course Name: Building Design For Sustainable Development.

Price: 3000USD

Curriculum: • Engineering core
                      • Civil engineering
                      •Free electives

Mechanical Engineering

Course Name: Mechanical Engineering,Machines and Equipment Design.

Price About 3200 USD.

Curriculum:  • Engineering core.
•Mechanical Engineering Electives.
•Mathematics Science and introduction to Engineering.
• Humanities and Social Science.
• Free electives.


Course: Management in Technical Systems.

Price : 3000USD.

Career Opportunities: The program graduates will be qualified for careers in big or medium size companies focused on new products development or firms specialising
in intellectual property management consulting.


Course: Economics and Management.

Price : 3000 USD.


Course: Computer and Information Science.

Entry Requirements : 4 year Bachelor Degree in Mathematics, Computer science, software engineering or related fields.

Price :3000 USD

To apply send your resume application on

Friday, 7 July 2017

PATENT- A world of Inventions

What is patent?

A patent is goverment authority or licsene conferring a right for set period for invention holder to sole right to exclude others from making, using or selling an invention.


• Abstract.
• Authorship.
• Claims.
• Description.
• Exclusive right.
• Priority.
• Prior art, Background of the invention.
• Filing Date.
•Patent Application.

The Essence of Patent

1) Exclusive Right : The right to exclude others from using invention. It provides you the right to be the self profit owner of your invention. This Right helps you to avoid the illegal use of your invention.

2)  Authorship: This provides you the right to be recognized as the author of an invention, Utility model, industrial design.

3) Priority: The Priority is given to the author who has filled the patent application first in patent office.

Patentability Criteria:

The Three main criterias are-
1) Industrial Application.
2) Novelty.
3) Invention step.

The patent should be filed in such a way that it can be applicable in industrial field as it will allow us to have a start up compaines or to have a collaboration with companies to produce the product through your invention patent.

Novelty is nothing but once the patent published in any part of the world we can't filed the same patent in any part of the world. The criteria states that once the patent filed can't be refiled again.

Inventive Step is the most important criteria to file a patent. Patent should be a new invention it should have pratical application.

Terms and Protection

There are certain terms and Protection for patent

•) 20 years from the filling date or invention
•) 10 years from the filing date for a utility model and can be extended up to 3 years
•) 15 Years from the filing date for an industrial design may be extended up to 10

The information was provided in seminar by
Natasha mam the patent professor of Ural Federal.